Glossary

20s: Twenty shillings or one pound. A shilling equals five pence in decimal.
Abbey: A community of monks or nuns governed by an abbot or abbess.
Benefice: An enclosed Church office yielding an income to its holder.
Carucate: The amount of land that can be ploughed with one plough and eight oxen in one year.
Chancellor: A clergyman acting as the law officer of a bishop.
Chapel: A place of christian worship.
Chapter of Canons: The collective body of the canons of a cathedral.
Chattel: An item of moveable personal property, such as furniture, domestic animals, etc.
Cloister: A covered walk usually around a quadrangle in a religious institution, having an open arcade or colonnade on the inside and wall on the outside.
Consecrated: Made or declared sacred or holy.
Crusade: A military expedition by Christians to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Curtilage: The enclosed area of land adjacent to a dwelling house.
Cut: Name given by the locals to the winterbourne that flows through the village.
Dean: The head of a chapter of canons and administrator of a cathedral.
Dissolution of the Monasteries: When King Henry VIII completed the break with the Church of Rome by abolishing monasticism in England by an Act of Parliament in 1536. His main motive was financial as the confiscated monastic property then reverted to the King's possession.
Domesday Book: The record of a survey of the land of England carried out by the commissioners of William I in 1086.
Glebe: Land assigned to the incumbent of a parish as part of his benefice and the endowment of the church.
Hatchment: A diamond shaped tablet bearing the Coat of Arms of a dead person.
Heriot: A death duty paid by villeins and free tenants to their Lord, often consisting of the dead man's best beast or chattel.
Incumbent: The parish priest whether vicar or rector.
Licensing Tournaments: To give permission for tournaments.
Manor: The Manor House of a lord and the lands attached to it.
Mark: One mark was worth 13 shillings and 8 pence, two-thirds of one pound. 66 pence in decimal.
Messuage: A dwelling house together with its outbuildings, curtilage , and the adjacent land appropriated to its use.
Monastery: The residence of a religious community, living in seclusion from secular society and bound by religious vows.
Noble: One noble was worth 6 shillings and 4 pence, one-third of one pound. 33 pence in decimal.
Nomina Villarum: A list made of all cities, boroughs and townships, and the lords of them, for King Edward III in 1316.
Patera: A round flat ornament in bas-relief in freizes etc.-often applied loosely to rosettes and other flat ornaments (archit.)
Pin Money: An allowance by a husband to his wife for personal expenditure.
Priory: A religious house governed by a prior, sometimes being subordinate to an abbey.
Rector: A person who looks after a parish and receives all the tithes and customary offerings and dues. When an ecclesiastical body became the rector a deputy or vicar would be appointed to look after the parish and receive the small tithes, while the great tithes went to the rector.
Rectory: The office and benefice of a rector.
Sheriff: The King's deputy in each county (or shire). Responsible for collecting the King's dues, administering justice, keeping the peace and mustering troops. [Derives from "shire reeve"]
Standard: A large tapering flag ending in two points, originally bourne by a sovereign or high ranking noble.
Tithe: A tenth part of agricultural produce, personal income or profits contributed as a tax for the support of the church or clergy.
Tithe Barn: A large barn where the agricultural tithe of a parish was stored.
Tournament: A martial sport or contest in which mounted combatants fought for a prize.
Vicar: A deputy appointed to look after a parish by a Rector, especially when an ecclesiastical body, such as a monastery, is the Rector. A Vicar received the small tithes.
Villein: Worker on a country estate
Virgate: 30 acres of land.
Warren: A franchise permitting one to keep animals, birds or fish in an enclosed space for breeding etc.
Winterbourne: A stream that runs dry in the summer.